Solid State Batteries Could Make Bringing Home EVs Much More Attractive

The modern electrified world is dependent on Li-Ion batteries, but as it stands they are too unreliable in nearly every measure. They catch fire, they degrade much too quickly, they are taxing on the environment[1], and they simply don’t fulfill our growing output and storage needs[2]. The potential of solid state Li-Ion batteries to resolve these drawbacks cannot be overlooked, the improved cell safety, durability, and effectiveness of solid state battery cells holds the power to revolutionize and truly legitimize battery-powered travel and grid-scale storage. The work being done to discover new materials that fulfill the requirements of solid state technology is producing promising results, with proper demand and support, there is a very good chance that important breakthroughs can happen. 

We are currently in a climate where the need for more sustainability is growing increasingly dire and the limitations of current batteries are a barrier to achieving that end. It is now clear to me that this technology has not moved in a terribly strong fashion towards viability. However, technology moves fast these days and over a year ago we heard claims of not just viability, but scalability from Fisker Inc. CEO[3] suggesting that while we are still a bit farther off from this technology than would be ideal, there is perhaps a significant shift bubbling to the surface of the battery industry. Alternatively, more conservative stances like that of Panasonic, claim that it will be another decade before solid state batteries are out on the road and in power banks. When the issue of connectivity between the electrode and electrolyte is resolved there will be little holding SSBs back other than the usual difficulties of mass production, something Henrik Fisker also claims to have overcome[3]. It simply cannot be stressed enough how vital innovations such as solid state electrolytes are to creating a cleaner more sustainable grid. 

SSBs promise to make all-electric transportation truly mainstream. By driving costs down, making certain safety measures nearly obsolete. The reduction in cell size and weight would allow EV manufacturers to fit more cells, safely inside their vehicles, improving ranges. Additionally, the longer cycle life of solid state cells would extend the lifespan of EVs. Making them a more attractive long term investment. The place where this technology shines brightest is in the all-electric transportation industry, and without innovations like SSBs there seems to be a much longer wait in store for us. 


1. Doughty, D. H. & Roth, E. P. A General Discussion of Li Ion Battery Safety. Interface magazine 21, 37-44 (2012).

2. Janek, J. & Zeier, W. G. A solid future for battery development. Nature Energy 1 (2016).

3. Hanley, S. Solid-State Battery Production Will Begin Soon, Claims Henrik Fisker. CleanTechnica (2018). Available at: October 2019)4. Takada, K. Progress and prospective of solid-state lithium batteries. Acta Materialia 61, 759-770 (2013).

Self-sustainable EV utilizing Solar and wind energy while static and in motion.

The EVs Powered by Li Ion batteries / Electric Motors are the alternatives of future for Internal Combustion Engine / Fossil fuel used in Automobiles to reduce the Greenhouse gas emission and contribute to the Global Warming.

The Increase in EVs in such catastrophic levels will also create an environmental liability in battery disposals worldwide which if not strictly adhered will create hazard risk in future comparable to global warming today. This paper emphasizes the fact that the baby steps towards self-sustainable EV should be started in the transformation phase of the IC Engines towards EVs which will help in reducing the battery size of the EVs. The reduction in energy requirement by the EVs from the battery pack will catalyst the transformation to EVs faster and with greater

There will be a huge surge in electricity demand with major usage by EVs there will be an equivalent of 14% in the mid-range and 29% in high range from the current <1% reports by NREL, which requires the grids to manage the surge by increasing the production.

The possible solution based on the current electricity model would be to Increase electricity generation at the grid.

      Since 63.5% of the current grids run on fossil fuels in USA the increase in energy requirement for EVs can only be from sustainable sources considering the targets for grids to reduce their greenhouse emissions. Sustainable clean power generation requires huge infrastructure and investment to meet the surge in energy demands.

To reduce the catastrophic loads on the grids this paper analyses the possible options that the automotive Industry can design and Implement to maximize the energy generation of a Car by itself. In other words, The Self sustainability of the car needs to be increased. There are 2 options to increase the energy generation.

1. Generate electricity by the vehicle while in motion using solar and the wind forces

2. Electricity generation at the Parking (Parking lots / Home) without external power source using the solar and wind energy.

The difference between the above 2 conditions is very subtle in that in static or in parked condition the solar power generation can be increased by extension of the solar panels much like the panoramic sunroof of a car. The power generation in static using wind forces might not be considerable since wind forces at ground level at parking lots might be very meagre for power generation.

The solar energy can be used in direct power generation to drive the car while the vehicle is in motion and for charging the battery when it is parked. The solar power can account to 18.97% of the energy requirement by the battery pack under specified conditions. (R.Maruti et al). The generation of solar power variation with respect to geographic conditions has been analyzed in the  paper solar tracking in hot and cold conditions ( S.A Sharaf et al) which gives an idea that solar tracking will help maintain the electricity production throughout the day and also has been more productive in colder climates than in hot conditions.

The energy generation of car will be improved if the surface area of the solar panel is increased using multi layered panels on the roof. This is like the panoramic sunroof which will slide to windshield and tailgate glass area and increase the energy generation. This will increase the energy production from solar anywhere between 25%~30%

The wind forces acting on a car while it is in motion(acceleration or cruise) cannot be utilized to generate electricity , but can be utilized when car is decelerated .The EV has regenerative braking adopted which will convert the braking forces to charge the battery but the system has efficiency of 20%~30% .The power of the car while decelerating will be distributed to the powertrain ,tires and aerodynamics. (Tesla roadster graph : 2008)

Tesla Roadster energy losses in Wh/mile taken from the battery. Source: Straubel, JB; “Roadster Efficiency and Range” (, 2008).

The power that gets transferred to the powertrain gets converted to Chemical energy in the battery. The aerodynamic forces which cannot be converted into useful energy can be utilized using horizontal miniature wind turbines which are similar in construction to Kaplan turbines which operates effectively at higher flow rates. The rotors will be embedded on aerodynamic spoilers fixed on the front and the rear side. During deceleration these teardrops designed spoilers will change angle to make the embedded rotors to get rotated by air to generate electricity to charge the battery. This power generation will be initiated when the acceleration ceases and regenerative braking starts.

The wind forces that are available in parking lot and at ground level are minimal so the power generation will be very minimal form the wind rotors embedded in the spoilers.

The regenerative braking is a big step towards transforming the braking losses in the car to useful energy. Increasing the regen braking efficiency will improve reducing the losses further to a higher level. The most important part and vital part is primary power generation for propulsion which will be contributed by the solar power in motion and in parking and the wind forces in parking.


  1. Cooperative control of regenerative braking and hydraulic braking of an electrified passenger car. by Junzhi Zhang, Chen Lv, Jinfang Gou, Decong Kong.
  2. USA Energy information Administration :
  3. Toward wearable self‐charging power systems: the integration of energy‐harvesting and storage devices by Xiong Pu, Weiguo Hu Zhongv ,Lin Wang.
  4. Electric Vehicle Driving Range Extension Using Photovoltaic Panels by Stefano De Pinto ,Qian Lu , Pablo Camocardi , Christoforos Chatzikomis ,Aldo Sorniotti ,  Domenico Ragonese,Gregorio Iuzzolino,Pietro Perlo ,Constantina Lekakou.       
  5. Analysis of downshift’s improvement to energy efficiency of an electric vehicle during regenerative braking by Liang Li, Xujian Li, Xiangyu Wang, Jian Song, Kai He and Chenfeng Li
  6. Research on motor rotational speed measurement in regenerative braking system of electric vehicle, Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, by Chaofeng Pan, Liao Chen, Long Chen, Haobin Jiang, Zhongxing Li, Shaohua Wang.
  7. Design and Energetic Evaluation of a Mobile Photovoltaic Roof for Cars, by Cecilia Pisanti
  8. The Environmental Impacts of Recycling Portable Lithium-Ion Batteries ,by Anna Boydena, Vi Kie Sooa*, Matthew Doolan
  10. Electrification futures study: Scenarios of Electric Technology Adoption and Power Consumption for the United States ( National Renewable Energy Laboratories ).
  11. Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines – MOL Hansen.


A conventional power system involves generation, transmission, distribution, and consumers. However, transition to a smart grid era defines the advanced electric grid adding a new player called aggregator (3rd party) [6]. In addition, the modern power system gives new benefits for all stakeholders in the new energy market [8]. This new power system will become a hybrid mix of Alternative Current (AC) and Direct Current (DC) electric power system architecture. Now, in Smart Grid (SG) terms, the new power grid architecture hierarchically interconnected system is called Inter Grid. This interconnected rank has in the first level a grid called Pico Grid. It could be plug-in Electrical Vehicle (EV) and Hybrid EV. Then, Nano Grid is defined as an electric grid with low load bearing and islanded operation. It could be 150 households. Then, Micro Grid (MG) is a low voltage network with Distributed Generation (DG), Energy Storage Systems (ESS), and communication technology to control the load. Finally, it has Sub-Grid and Main-Grid in the fourth and top level respectively [6].

Overview is focused in the MG as a power system involving various generation units, and controllable loads with Energy Storage Systems (ESS). This modern power system, as a strategic business model is called a Virtual Power Plant (VPP) [6]. A VPP is established of three main components, such as generation, information, and energy storage technologies [6]. Generation technologies or DG technologies are also known as supply-side. These could be Renewable Energy Resource (RER) or non-RER [9]. Meanwhile, ESS are the bridge between source and load during the period of uncertainty. These systems could be mechanical, chemical, or physical. In addition, VPP are coordinated through information communication technologies to guarantee grid stability and reduce transmission loses [6].

Figure 1. Virtual Power Plant Components [6].

VPP aggregators are the main stakeholder because they manage storage devices, adjustable loads, and aggregate DG technologies to the system [9]. Also, consumers have a special role in the system because they can provide adjustable loads, DG resources, or ESS to VPP aggregators. Energy producers are prosumers and there are large, and small (e.g., residential, commercial, and industrial) [9]. Buildings are responsible for an important percentage of the energy consumption worldwide. Therefore, they are excellent aspirants for providing energy aggregation surplus to the grid [9]. Smart consumers are a concept employed in the SG. Consumer Empowerment creates a user-friendly environment between utility and prosumers; in addition, it helps to reduce the cost of the billing period. However, trust factor is a major challenge in this implementation [6].

As a result, this overview aims to indicate how the CE gives the responsibility and the possibility to the prosumer to manage the resources by himself. In addition, it identifies the energy efficient concept fundamental for the future development of the SG [6].


1. Zhou, B. et al. Smart home energy management systems: Concept, configurations, and scheduling strategies. Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. 61, 30-40 (2016).

2. A. Fleischhacker, H. Auer, G. Lettner & A. Botterud. Sharing Solar PV and Energy Storage in Apartment Buildings: Resource Allocation and Pricing. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid 10, 3963-3973 (2019).

3. Patel, N. R., Rawlings, J. B., Ellis, M. J., Wenzel, M. J. & Turney, R. D. Economic optimization of distributed embedded battery units for large-scale heating, ventilation, and air conditioning applications. AIChE J. 65, UNSP e16576 (2019).

4. Ben Mabrouk, S., Favuzza, S., La Cascia, D., Massaro, F. & Zizzo, G. Energy Management of a Hybrid Photovoltaic-Wind System with Battery Storage: A Case Report. J. Sustain. Dev. Energy Water Environ. Syst. -JSDEWES 7, 399-415 (2019).

5. (2019). What is Illinois Home Performance? | Illinois Home Performance. [online] Available at: [Accessed 16 Apr. 2018].

6. Shaukat, N. et al. A survey on consumers empowerment, communication technologies, and renewable generation penetration within Smart Grid. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 81, 1453-1475 (2018).

7. Awadallah, M. A. & Venkatesh, B. Energy Storage in Distribution System Planning and Operation: Current Status and Outstanding Challenges. Can. J. Electr. Comp. Eng. -Rev. Can. Genie Electr. Inform. 42, 10-19 (2019).

8. Samad, T., Koch, E. & Stluka, P. Automated Demand Response for Smart Buildings and Microgrids: The State of the Practice and Research Challenges. Proc IEEE 104, 726-744 (2016).

9. Shayeghi, H., Shahryari, E., Moradzadeh, M. & Siano, P. A Survey on Microgrid Energy Management Considering Flexible Energy Sources. Energies 12, 2156 (2019).

Hydrogen: An Investment in the Future of Energy Storage for Transportation

The future of energy storage must include hydrogen.  It is clean, efficient, abundant, and transportable.  Any troubles that we currently face for hydrogen as an energy storage solution are solvable with research into new technology.  Much of the funding for new advancements in hydrogen has been diverted to other, more profitable technologies.  According to the Department of Energy, the funding for hydrogen storage and fuel cell research has declined by more than 50% in the last decade1 .  We need to reverse this trend immediately if we want to move our society into the next age of clean energy.

The transportation industry is the worst polluter, and many solutions for the grid do not address needs for it.  Solar and wind are accepted as the cleanest energy production methods, but to make them more feasible in our world of energy demand we need storage.  Currently, the most common solution for storing energy and using it for transportation is lithium batteries.  But li-ion batteries are not a sustainable solution for our world.  In 2015 there was a shortage of available lithium.  Fears about the scarcity of lithium were quickly squashed2, but the reality is that it is not an inexhaustible resource.  Some estimates put a timeline as long as 360 years, while others say at the pace we’re increasing out demand for lithium we could see shortages in as little as a few decades3.  Lithium excels in applications such as handheld devices, but hydrogen can relieve some of the demand for lithium in the transportation sector.

The abundance of hydrogen in our universe makes it a great choice for energy storage.  Advancements today will lead us into thousands of years of energy solutions.  Advancements in hydrogen production, storage, safety, infrastructure and fuel-cells are critical to its climb into our energy marketplace.  There’s a long way to go, but it is essential that we make these investments in our future.



2. Eftekhari, A. Lithium Batteries for Electric Vehicles: From Economy to Research Strategy. ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng. 7, 5602-5613 (2019).


Sodium is the new Lithium: Next Generation Storage

The cities around the world are expanding, moving forward faster, creating a surge in energy consumption. As energy from environmentally friendly sources are getting priorities, to store energy from such fluctuating sources like solar and wind are getting importance. The inherently intermittent and diffuse nature of these renewable resources predicates the development of cost-effective, large scale energy storage. Such storage capabilities offer the added benefit of contributing resilience to the electric grid, which is needed to mitigate the effects of natural disasters and other catastrophic events. Batteries are the key to store such energy. However not all batteries are applicable for such purpose. Though lead acid battery are providing most of the storage capacity till now, it not suitable for mass storage system because of its low charge density and shorter lifetime [1]. Lithium-ion battery (LIB) are the one in use today due to its high energy density and longer life cycle. It is great for energy storage, especially in mobile applications like phones, laptops and electric cars. However, the expansion of electric vehicle (EV) fleet, mobile electronics and large grid scale batteries based on Lithium-ion technology, huge pressure will be on the lithium supply and it is limited on earth [2]. So electrochemical energy storage technologies based on earth abundant and cost-effective materials are getting attention. Metals like Sodium is earth abundant and cheap and Sodium-ion batteries (SIB) have energy densities that is well suited for grid scale storage. Sodium have similar property as Lithium as alkali materials [3].

The principal focus of this study is to develop a comprehensive knowledge of the application and current technologies involve with SIB. To get an idea of how SIB is getting attention one can investigate the publication made by researchers on SIB relative to LIB. More publication is done on SIB in recent years rather than previous years and now it is comparable to LIB. Huge funding is given to the researchers by authorities like National Science foundation (NSF) for doing research on battery technology [4-5].


Figure 1: The schematic of Sodium-ion Battery [6].

The main challenge for SIB is the large size of Sodium cation and its subsequent weight relative to Lithium. Therefore, electrode materials are the main obstacle limiting the commercialization of SIB. To ensure reversible insertion and exertion of charge carrying ions, several Cathodic and Anodic Nanowire electrodes have developed.

The motivation behind SIB is to replace LIB in future and as the EV industry is evolving SIB can help the companies to reduce the cost of cars and attract the mass medium and low income customers. Some SIB have been developed that can be broken down and disposed in a land fill, alleviating the hazardous waste problem with LIB. So recycling is easy for SIB.

Though the cost of SIB is not much less than LIB [7] as of now unless the price of Lithium goes high but SIB can direct towards the way of alleviating the search for cost effective battery solutions for future and if succeeded, will contribute to the societal need for cost effective grid energy storage.


  1. Nayak, P. K., Yang, L., Brehm, W. & Adelhelm, P. From Lithium‐Ion to Sodium‐Ion Batteries: Advantages, Challenges, and Surprises. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 57, 102-120 (2018).
  2. Delmas, C. Sodium and Sodium‐Ion Batteries: 50 Years of Research. Advanced Energy Materials 8, 170313-n/a (2018)
  3. Yoo, H. D., Markevich, E., Salitra, G., Sharon, D. & Aurbach, D. On the challenge of developing advanced technologies for electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Materials Today 17, 110-121 (2014).
  6. Hwang, J. Y., Myung, S. T., & Sun, Y. K. (2017). Sodium-ion batteries: present and future. Chemical Society Reviews46(12), 3529-3614.
  7. Vaalma, C., Buchholz, D., Weil, M. & Passerini, S. A cost and resource analysis of sodium-ion batteries. Nature Reviews Materials 3 (2018).